Asphalt: A waterproofing agent applied to other roofing materials during the manufacturer process.
Balanced system: A ventilation system where 50% of the required ventilating area is provided by vents located in the upper portion of the roof with the balance provided by undereave or soffit vents.
Base flashing: Used to direct water onto the roof covering, base flashing is part of the roof that’s attached to the deck.
Blisters: Various sized bubbles that can form within an asphalt roof, often after installation.
Built-up roof: Low-slope or flat roof which consists of asphalt & ply sheets in multiple layers.
Bundle: A collection of shingles. 3, 4 or 5 bundles are usually included within a square.
Butt edge: The lower edge of shingle tabs
Caulk: Used to fill any joints and prevent potential leaks.
Chalk line: A line made on the roof by snapping a taut string or cord dusted with chalk. Used for alignment purposes.
Closed cut valley: A method of valley treatment in which shingles from one side of the valley extend across the valley, while shingles from the other side are trimmed two inches from the valley centerline. The valley flashing is not exposed.
Collar: Also called a vent sleeve, a collar is used to seal the roof around the vent pipe opening.
Concealed nail method: Application of roll roofing in which all nails are driven into the underlying course of roofing and covered by a cemented, overlapping course. Nails are not exposed to the weather.
Condensation: Water that collects droplets when humid air comes in contact with a cold surface.
Counter flashing: The part of flashing that’s attached to a vertical surface to help stop any water from making its way behind the base flashing.
Course: A row of shingles or roll roofing running the length of the roof.
Cricket: A peaked saddle construction at the back of a chimney to help prevent accumulation of snow and ice and to deflect water around the chimney.
Roof Deck: The structural foundation base for the roof system and is usually made of wood or plywood.
Dormer: A raised section of the roof. Dormers commonly contain a window that projects vertically through the slope in the roof.
Downspout: A pipe for draining water from roof gutters. Also called a leader.
Metal Drip edge: A narrow strip of noncorrosive metal used at the rake and eave to help manage dripping water by facilitating water runoff to protect the underlying section of a wall.
Eaves: The horizontal, lowest edge of a sloped roof that extends beyond the exterior wall—usually located in the first three feet of a roof.
Felt: Fibrous material saturated with asphalt and used as an underlayment or sheathing paper.
Flashing: A metal material installed at joint openings, around chimneys, and any dormer windows or skylights to help prevent water intrusion. You may recognize flashing as metal stair steps alongside a chimney or side walls on a roof.
Roof Gable: The triangular section of the outer wall at the peak of the roof between a sloping roof and eave. A roof gable is sometimes referred to as a rake.
Gable roof: A type of roof containing a sloping plane on each side of a single ridge with a gable at each end.
Gambrel roof: A type of roof containing two sloping planes of different pitch on each side of the ridge. The lower plane has a steeper slope than the upper. Features a gable at each end.
Granules: Ceramic-coated colored crushed rock that is applied to the exposed surface of asphalt roofing products.
Gutter: The trough that channels water from the eaves to the downspouts.
Hip: The intersection of two roof planes that meet to form a sloping ridge running from the peak to the eave. Hip and ridge shingles are specifically designed for this part of a roof.
Hip roof: A type of roof containing sloping planes of the same pitch on each of four sides. Contains no gables.
Hip shingles: Shingles used to cover the inclined external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.
Ice dam: Condition formed at the lower roof edge by the thawing and refreezing of melted snow on the overhang. Can force water up and under shingles, causing leaks.
Ice & Water Barrier: A self-adhered waterproofing material installed along eaves, valleys, side walls, and other sensitive areas to protect against ice damage and wind-driven rain.
Laminated Architectural Shingles: Contain more than one layer of tabs to add dimension, performance and durability to a roof. Architectural shingles are sometimes referred to as three-dimensional shingles or laminated shingles. The opposite of architectural shingles are three-tab shingles, which are produced as a single layer of tabs and appear flat or without the dimension of a laminated shingle.
Lap: To cover the surface of one shingle or roll with another.
Low slope application: Method of installing asphalt shingles on roof slopes between two and four inches per foot.
Louver: A slanted opening for ventilation.
Mansard roof: A type of roof containing two sloping planes of different pitch on each of four sides. The lower plane has a much steeper pitch than the upper, often approaching vertical. Includes no gables.
Mineral stabilizers: Finely ground limestone, slate, traprock or other inert materials added to asphalt coatings for durability and increased resistance to fire and weathering.
Natural ventilation: A ventilation system utilizing ventilators installed in openings in the attic and properly positioned to take advantage of natural air flow to draw hot summer or moist winter air out and replace it with fresh outside air.
Normal-slope application: Method of installing asphalt shingles on roof slopes between 4 inches and 21 inches per foot.
Open valley: Method of valley construction in which shingles on both sides of the valley are trimmed along a chalk line snapped on each side of the valley. Shingles do not extend across the valley. Valley flashing is exposed.
Organic felt: An asphalt roofing base material manufactured from cellulose fibers.
Overhang: That portion of the roof structure that extends beyond the exterior walls of a building.
Pallets: Wooden platforms used for storing and shipping bundles of shingles.
Pitch: The degree of roof incline expressed as the ratio of the rise, in feet, to the span, in feet.
Ply: The number of layers of roofing (e.g. one-ply, two-ply).
Portico: A structure consisting of a roof supported by columns at regular intervals, typically attached as a porch to a building
Proper Vent: A styrofoam attic insulation rafter baffle that is installed in attic bays to break resistance and lightweight rigidity for constant flow of fresh air from soffit vent to the ridge vent
Rafter: The supporting framing member immediately beneath the deck, sloping from the ridge to the wall plate.
Rake: The inclined edge of a sloped roof over a wall from the eave to the ridge.
Roof Ridge: The roof ridge, or ridge of a roof is the horizontal line running the length of the roof where the two roof planes meet. This intersection creates the highest point on a roof, sometimes referred to as the peak. Hip and ridge shingles are specifically designed for this part of a roof.
Ridge shingles: Shingles used to cover the horizontal external angle formed by the intersection of two sloping roof planes.
Ridge vent: An exhaust vent that runs horizontally along the peak of the roof allowing warm, humid air to escape from the attic. Attic ventilation requirements are calculated by contractor to determine how much exhaust ventilation you would need to properly ventilate your roof and attic.
Rise: The vertical distance from the eaves line to the ridge.
Roll roofing: Asphalt roofing products manufactured in roll form.
Roofing cement: A compound used to seal flashings, seal down shingles and for other small waterproofing jobs. Where cement is required for sealing down shingles, use a dab about the size of a quarter unless otherwise specified.
Run: The horizontal distance from the eaves to a point directly under the ridge. One half the span.
Self-sealing shingles: Shingles containing factory-applied strips or spots of self-sealing adhesive.
Shading: Slight differences in shingle color that may occur as a result of normal manufacturing operations.
Sheathing: Exterior-grade boards used as a roof deck material.
Shed roof: A roof containing only one sloping plane. Has no hips, ridges, valleys or gables.
Skylight: A fixed or operational window pane in the roof providing lighting, ventilation, views, and sometimes emergency egress.
Slope: The degree of roof incline expressed as the ratio of the rise, in inches, to the run, in feet.
Soffit: The finished underside of the eaves.
Soil stack: A vent pipe that penetrates the roof.
Span: The horizontal distance from eaves to eaves.
Square: A unit of roof measure covering 100 square feet.
Starter strip: Asphalt roofing applied at the eaves that provides protection by filling in the spaces under the cutouts and joints of the first course of shingles.
Steep-slope application (Mansard): Method of installing asphalt shingles on roof slopes greater than 21 inches per foot.
Step flashing: Flashing application method used where a vertical surface meets a sloping roof plane.
Strip shingles: A single-layer shingle commonly known as a three-tab shingle because it has three tabs.
SureNail Line: A unique, triple layer of reinforcement along the roofing nail line of Owens Corning Roofing Architectural Shingles. This technology occurs when the fabric overlays the common bond of the shingle layers, offering excellent fastener holding power. This is a large improvement over standard shingles that have only one or two layers in the nailing zone.
Tab: The exposed portion of strip shingles defined by cutouts.
Three-tab shingle: A single-layer shingle having three tabs.
Undereave vent: Intake vents located under the eaves of the roof that help draw cool dry air into the attic. Attic ventilation requirements are calculated by contractor to determine how much intake ventilation you would need to properly ventilate your roof and attic.
Roofing Underlayment: A layer of asphalt-saturated felt (sometimes referred to as tar paper) which is laid down on a bare deck before shingles are installed to provide additional protection for the deck. Synthetic underlayment helps repel moisture and provides protection against water infiltration. Synthetic underlayment is becoming a popular material choice over felt due to proven water-resistance performance and long-lasting durability.
Roof Valley: The V-shaped intersection between two sloping roofs joining at an angle to provide water runoff.
Vent: Any outlet for air that protrudes through the roof deck, such as a pipe or stack. Any device installed on the roof, gable or soffit for the purpose of ventilating the underside of the roof deck.
Ventilators: Devices that eject stale air and circulate fresh air (e.g. ridge, roof, gable, undereave, foundation or rafter vents and vented soffit panels).
Woven valley: Method of valley construction in which shingles from both sides of the valley extend across the valley and are woven together by overlapping alternate courses as they are applied. The valley flashing is not exposed.